Mid term

1. Describe 5 great moments in print history

1455 Gutenberg’s Bible (Germany): print becomes a manufacturing process
1798 invention of lithography (Germany)
1879 invention of gravure (Austria)
1885 first commercial halftone illustration in a newspaper (New York City)
1886 Linotype: first successful automated typesetting machine (New York City)
1893 first color-separated and screened halftone image (Philadelphia)

2. What is font, definition, family, serif, sans serif, decorative and display fonts

    Definition: In typography, a font is traditionally defined as a quantity of sorts composing a complete character set of a single size and style of a particular typeface. For example, the complete set of all the characters for “9-point Bulmer” is called a font, and the “10-point Bulmer” would be another separate font, but part of the same font family, whereas “9-point Bulmer boldface” would be another font in a different font family of the same typeface. One individual font character might be referred to as a “piece of font” or a “piece of type”.

   Family: A set of fonts all with the same typeface, but with different sizes, weights and slants.

   Serif: In typography, serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface with serifs is called a serif typeface. Serif typefaces as “Roman”.

   Sans Serif: A typeface without serifs is called sans serif or sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning “without”. Some typography sources refer to sans-serif typefaces as “Grotesque” (in German “grotesk”) or “Gothic”,

   Display fonts: The use of type at large sizes, perhaps 30 points or larger. Some typefaces are considered useful solely at display sizes, and hence are known as display faces. For typefaces used across a wide range of sizes, in the days of metal type, each size was cut individually, or even if pantographically scaled would often have adjustments made to the design for larger or smaller sizes, making a “display” face have distinct differences.

   Decorative fonts: The principal aim of decorative font, while displaying something on screen or with the help of any printing device, can be accurately and unmistakably derived from its name. It definitely serves to decorate, embellish, and beautify a text. With the help of decorative fonts any informal passage can become more reader-friendly: it will quickly capture attention of the readers and make a text easier to perceive, unusual, and fascinating.

3. Describe Great moments in print history 2.

1906 “accidental” invention of the offset lithographic press
1930 first four-color offset lithographic press
1948 first public demonstration of Xerography
1954 first commercial “cold type” phototypesetting machine
1985 “desktop publishing” is born: Apple Macintosh; Adobe PostScript; Aldus Pagemaker; Linotype L300 imagesetter
1993 first digital offset presses (Indigo E-Print 1000; Agfa Chromapress)
1993 first direct-imaging (DI) offset press (Heidelberg GTO-DI)
1994 industry adopts computer-to-plate (CTP) technology
1998 first “electronic book” reading device (Rocket eBook)
2000 second-generation digital color presses (Heidelberg NexPress; Xerox iGen3 FutureColor)
2005 e-inks; high-speed, wide-format inkjet printers; “spray-on” lithographic image carriers; re-imageable lithographic presses; remote proofing; CIM (computer integrated manufacturing) workflows linking print production to MIS (management information systems)
2009 e-paper for magazine covers, signage, and e-reading devices (Amazon Kindle, etc.); digital inkjet presses; QR codes linking print to the mobile Internet; sustainable (“green”) printing; reliable Web-to-print solutions for print procurement and management

4. Explain color: RGB, CMYK, Complimentary Colors. Explain the difference between 4-color printing and color printing.

RGB: RGB stands for the three primary colors of light – Red, Green, and Blue. RGB can be described as the computer’s native color space for capturing images and displaying them. As human eyes are sensitive to these primary colors – red, green, and blue – all colors are perceived as a combination of these three colors. The RGB color model, based on a Cartesian coordinate system, is considered as an addictive model in which red, green, and blue, are combined in several methods to reproduce all other colors. In the RGB color model, each color appears in its primary spectral component of red, green, and blue.

CMYK: CMYK stands for cyan, magenta, yellow, and key, or black. These are the four colors of ink used in the traditional method of printing hardcopies of images, called offset printing. The three colors, plus black, roughly correspond to the primary colors, from which can be mixed colors across the visible spectrum. CMYK is a color mixing system that depends on chemical pigments to achieve the desired hues.

Complimentary Color: Complementary colors are pairs of colors that are of “opposite” hue in some color model. The exact hue “complementary” to a given hue depends on the model in question, and perceptually uniform, additive, and subtractive color models, for example, have differing complements for any given color.

The difference between 4-color printing and spot printing:
4-color printing: This process is also called CMYK color printing, after the four colors of ink it utilizes: cyan (C), yellow (Y), magenta (M), and black, also known as key (K). These four colors can produce nearly any color imaginable, including gradients and subtle blends. Each color is applied to the surface one-at-a-time in a layered fashion using four different printing plates. Note that since the inks are blended and printed at the same time, you might get very slight variations in color with each printing. 4-color process uses cyan, magenta, yellow and black to produce an incredible variety of nuanced colors. Four color process is generally more expensive than spot printing, but it’s the method of choice when printing detailed color photography or extremely detailed illustrations that contain four or more colors.

Spot printing:
Instead of creating hues by blending inks during the printing process, spot color printing transfers solid fields of pre-mixed ink directly to the page or object. This means that the color will remain exactly the same with every print run. Since they can’t achieve the same level of color variety as economically as four-color process, spot color designs contain only a limited number of colors (typically between one and three), each applied separately to the desired surface. Many spot color inks are standardized using PMS (Pantone Matching System). PMS assigns a number to each of over a thousand different hues so that commercial printers can easily print a design in your color of choice. Even though PMS color inks are pre-mixed, their number is so enormous that nearly any color you want can be “matched” with a practically equivalent ink.

5. What is E-portfolio?

An ePortfolio is a collection of a student’s work in electronic format. You should include a welcome/introduction to your ePortfolio. This is the first virtual impression that people will have of you, so make it a great one! You may even want to include a video welcome where you explain the organization of your ePortfolio and direct the viewer through the site.

6. Paper Characteristics, Grain Direction, Making of Paper

Selecting paper is a very important job for the designer, and there are a number of paper characteristics, including: weight, grade or type, color, brightness, reflectance, opacity, smoothness, and grain

7. Describe 4 Binding Processes

Saddle Wire Stitching / Side Wire Stitching / Perfect Binding / Loose Leaf Binding

8. Explain Prepress : Halftones for printing, The halftone Dot

Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size, in shape or in spacing.[1] “Halftone” can also be used to refer specifically to the image that is produced by this process.
Though round dots are the most common used, there are different dot types available, each of them having their own characteristics. They can be used simultaneously to avoid the moiré effect. Generally, the preferred dot shape is also dependent on the printing method or the printing plate.
Round dots: most common, suitable for light images, especially for skin tones. They meet at a tonal value of 70%.
Elliptical dots: appropriate for images with many objects. Elliptical dots meet at the tonal values 40% (pointed ends) and 60% (long side), so there is a risk of a pattern.
Square dots: best for detailed images, not recommended for skin tones. The corners meet at a tonal value of 50%. The transition between the square dots can sometimes be visible to the human eye.

9. Explain prepress : Image Assembly, layout, Scanning, file formats, program used to create print layouts.

10. list 10 products of graphic communication lndustry. 

book, periodical, catalog, direct mail., directories, financial, packaging, document, ad, corporate product. Miscellaneous product.

History of Technology

History about technology

Technological convergence is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve toward performing similar tasks. There are not all the answers to solving the changing needs of society. Convergence can refer to previously separate technologies. The rise of digital communication in the late 20th century has made it possible for media organizations (or individuals) to deliver text, audio, and video material over the same wired, wireless, or fiber-optic connections. Convergence in this instance is defined as the interlinking of computing and other information technologies, media content, and communication networks that have arisen as the result of the evolution and popularization of the Internet as well as the activities, products and services that have emerged in the digital media space.

A technology in the graphic arts had changed the posture of the industry within a five year period. After then, the traditional period from conception to implementation was ten years by the end of the 1990s. However, since the 1990s, the time it takes for a new technology to change the face of an industry has become greatly reduced such as photography, cell phone, and DVD media.

Technology tends to expand existing markets and create new ones. It improves the ability to serve and expand existing markets and provides opportunities to develop new ones such as advertising. Also, technology and practical needs share a mutual attraction. Technological change is rarely as disruptive as is often expected. The World Wide Web place commercial printing but provided new opportunities for print to support web communication and visa versa.

Results count and they are measured in practical human terms. Technology is criticized for disrupting what is the norm at any given time. However, history shows us that technological progress cannot be stopped. It can be slowed down, but it eventually breaks through to satisfy human needs. Also, technology must benefit people because people create and control technology to satisfy human needs. People will not revert to old technology to fulfill practical needs once new technology is adopted.